The old and new criteria were not too dissimilar, opioid addiction was associated with:
- being younger than 65
- having a history of opioid abuse and substance abuse treatment
- higher opioid withdrawal symptoms
- about 35 percent of patients met the criteria for opioid addiction
- 21.7 percent of the patients met the criteria for moderate opioid-use disorder
- 13.2 percent had severe opioid-use disorder
Prescription drugs, even if taken as prescribed, are highly addictive and should be used after all other forms of pain treatment have been exhausted. Going to the doctor when suffering with chronic pain, only to go home suffering from chronic pain and, now, addiction is never a good deal. There are many alternative forms of pain management available to those who are willing to try them, the problem is that most people want the quickest fix to their problems without realizing the new, potentially worse, problems that may arise as a result of consuming such medications. If opioids can be avoided, then avoid them at all costs.
The findings are published in the Journal of Addictive Diseases.